The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses (Oxford Series in by Edward C. Holmes

By Edward C. Holmes

RNA viruses supply specific insights into the styles and approaches of evolutionary swap in genuine time. The learn of viral evolution is mainly topical given the becoming wisdom that rising and re-emerging ailments (most of that are as a result of RNA viruses) symbolize an immense danger to public health and wellbeing. even though, whereas the examine of viral evolution has built speedily within the final 30 years, quite little awareness has been directed towards linking paintings at the mechanisms of viral evolution inside of cells or person hosts, to the epidemiological results of those approaches. This novel booklet fills this hole via contemplating the styles and tactics of viral evolution throughout their whole variety of spatial and temporal scales.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses offers a entire assessment of RNA virus evolution. this can be the 1st ebook to hyperlink mechanisms of viral evolution to epidemiological results, incorporating case reviews in RNA virus emergence and evolution utilizing topical examples resembling influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and rabies. It unearths the underlying evolutionary approaches wherein rising viruses move species limitations and unfold in new hosts.

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Extra info for The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)

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It is reasonable to think that the earliest replicators on Earth existed as a form of ribozyme, and that these were also the progenitors of RNA viruses. Indeed, Manfred Eigen’s seminal work on early replication systems implies that ribozymes may have set in motion the process of evolution by natural selection, as 22 • 2 The origins of RNA viruses this can be considered a predictable outcome of self-replication (summarized in Eigen 1992). Because of their complex secondary structures, lack of protein-coding regions, and most importantly their ribozyme functions, viroids represent potentially good candidates for remnants of the earliest life forms that occupied the RNA world (Fig.

Despite this body of work, few higher-order groupings of RNA viruses are officially recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV; Fauquet et al. 2005), namely the order Mononegavirales, a grouping of four families of unsegmented ssRNA− virus—Bornaviridae, Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae—and the Nidovirales, comprising the Arteriviridae, Coronaviridae and Roniviridae families of ssRNA+ viruses. An order Picornavirales, comprising the families Picornaviridae, Comoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Marnaviridae, and Sequiviridae of ssRNA+ viruses, along with some unassigned viral genera, has also been proposed, largely based on shared patterns of genome and capsid organization (Le Gall et al.

2005; Jalasvuori and Bamford 2008). Three genes/structures fall into this class: (i) the so-called jelly-roll capsid (JRC) (Fig. 4), a tightly structured protein barrel that represents the major capsid subunit of (non-enveloped) virions with an icosahedral structure (Rossmann et al. 1985; Coulibaly et al. 2005), and which is found in viruses as diverse as picornaviruses (ssRNA+), birnaviruses (dsRNA), herpesviruses (dsDNA), and Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (a dsDNA virus of archaebacteria; Maaty et al.

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