By C. M. Ligtvoet, N. Bom, W. J. Gussenhoven (auth.), M. A. M. Taverne, A. H. Willemse (eds.)
The use of ultrasonic imaging strategies for diagnostic reasons in veteri nary drugs and animal technology has lagged a ways at the back of their use in human medication. within the quarter of household animal replica, diagnostic ultrasono graphy has a comparatively brief historical past. stories on B-mode scanning first seemed as past due as 1969, whilst Stouffer and associates used it for counting foetal numbers in past due gestation sheep. After Lindahl had re-evaluated the potential for two-dimensional ultrasonography for being pregnant analysis in sheep in 1976, result of the 1st huge scale field-trials by way of Fowler and Wilkins on predicting foetal numbers throughout the first 1/2 gestation in sheep have been released as lately as 1980. during this yr additionally the 1st paper, via Palmer and associates, on ultrasonic scanning of the uterus and ovaries within the mare seemed. the advance of diagnostics which used to be completed via the appliance of this system is illustrated by means of its current regimen use in medical equine perform and sheep breeding. in addition to offe ring a correct early being pregnant analysis in species corresponding to the pony, cow, sheep, goat, pig and puppy, ultrasonography allows the visualization of ovarian and uterine buildings for the id of either physiological and pathological stipulations. during this method it replaces or supplementations the extra universal diagnostic ideas utilized by the overall practitioner to date. Ultrasonography has additionally opened a number of new traces of analysis for clini cians and learn workers.
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Extra info for Diagnostic Ultrasound and Animal Reproduction
When the uterine content was very thick and full of leucocytes and tissue debris, the echogenity closely resembled that of the uterine wall. According to ultrasonographic findings, the thickness of the uterine wall can vary considerably. Thus thick-walled and thin-walled pyometras were found. Differentiation from a pregnancy on the basis of the thickness of the uterine wall is therefore only relevant if the affected uterine wall is extremely thick. Conclusive evidence for a pyometra is given, if the uterine content shows scattered echogenity of the fluid and the entire lumen of the uterus can be scanned without coming across any signs of an embryo or foetus.
DO = oestrus P4 = blood-progesterone level nmol/I L left ovary R right ovary I>. = bloodvessels near the ovary = ovulated follicle o = follicle '" 6 mm o = follicle > 6 mm and '" 12 mm o = follicle > 12 mm and '" 18 mm ':i) = corpus luteum = corpus luteum with cavity and trabecula @ = corpus luteum with cavity * e 00 .. l~ "" ~ * ::;). :,':! Oox 45 Corpora lutea Corpora lutea (Figs. 9, 10 and 11) have, in contrast to the liquid-filled follicles, a granular echogenic structure which intensifies during the luteal phase.
Very young corpora lutea or corpora haemoragica are hard to palpate and may easily be confused with pre-ovulatory follicles. In such cases ultrasonography is necessary, especially when advice about insemination is requested. The young corpora lutea are not easy to discern using ultrasonography, but pre-ovulatory follicles are. The presence of a pre-ovulatory follicle justifies insemination; the disappearance of the same folicle is the first indication that ovulation took place. Active corpora lutea are usually easy to palpate and visualize using ultrasound.