Cytogenetics: Plants, Animals, Humans by J. Schulz-Schaeffer

By J. Schulz-Schaeffer

Since 1961 the writer has taught a direction in Cytogenetics at Montana kingdom college. Undergraduate and graduate stu­ dents of Biology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Animal and diversity technological know-how, Plant and Soil technological know-how, Plant Pathology and Veterinary technological know-how are enrolled. consequently, the subject material has been pre­ sented in an built-in method to correlate it with those different disciplines. This booklet has been ready as a textual content for this direction. the newest Cytogenetics textual content was once released in 1972, and speedily constructing study during this box makes a brand new one urgently wanted. This booklet comprises many points of Cytogenetics and comparable fields and is written for the school scholar in addition to for the researcher. it is strongly recommended that the scholar must have taken preparatory classes in rules of Genetics and Cytol­ ogy. The content material is greater than is generally taught in the course of one quar­ ter of an instructional yr, therefore permitting an teacher to decide on what she or he wish to current to a category. This strategy additionally permits the researcher to acquire a wide publicity to this box of biology. References are generously provided to stimulate orig­ inal examining at the topic and to provide entry to worthy resources. The specific index is meant to be of unique information to researchers.

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Kunth, B. , and B. valdivianus R. A. , of the section Mitotic Metaphase Chromosomes A B 2 1 3 6 4 c 7 8 10 9 12 E 14 ~ 15 16 F 19 5 11 0 13 37 G 20 21 17 18 .. • 22 X Y Fig. 3. Karyotype of human male. (Courtesy of Dr. Philipp Pallister, Shodair Crippled Children Hospital, Helena, Montana). Ceratochloa of Bromus has such a tandem satellite (Schulz-Schaeffer, 1960). Satellites also may show considerable variation in size. This may be correlated to the fact that satellites are mostly believed to be heterochromatic.

28 History of Cytogenetics Restriction enzymes belong to two different types according to their restriction products. Type I cuts at unique DNA sites resulting in specific fragments with unique terminal sequences. The cuts are within sequences that show twofold sym. i" • metry aroun d a given relerence pomt ( CTT) . T ype II restrictIOn . , AAG TTC GAA endonucleases are smaller and simpler in subunit composition than type I and are more specific in their cleavage sites. Nathans, Smith, and Arber were the winners of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Ohno et al. (1961) demonstrated that all 10 satellited chromosomes in man never form more than 6 nucleoli in any given interphase cell. The Ag-As ammoniacal silver staining method stains transcriptionally active nucleolus organizer regions. In humans, Miller et al. (1977) found that each person has a characteristic number of Ag-stained chromosomes, always fewer than 10. The frequency of Ag-stained chromosomes was correlated with the number of satellited chromosomes. 6 The Knobs Another valuable landmark on the pachytene chromosomes of some species, particularly maize but also alfalfa (Buss and Cleveland, 1968), are the knobs.

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