Conformal Array Antenna Theory and Design by Lars Josefsson, Patrik Persson

By Lars Josefsson, Patrik Persson

Observe: this article is a part of the IEEE Press sequence on Electromagnetic Wave Theory.

This is the 1st entire remedy of conformal antenna arrays from an engineering point of view. whereas offering a radical origin in conception, the authors of this booklet supply a wealth of hands-on guideline for sensible research and layout of conformal antenna arrays. hence, you get the information you would like, along the sensible information to layout antennas which are built-in into  such buildings aircrafts or skyscrapers.

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We will also discuss the concept of phase modes, which is a useful tool for the understanding of the performance of circular arrays. It is also used in pattern synthesis. Omnidirectional patterns will be studied in some detail, especially the problem of reducing the amplitude ripple. The effect of directional elements on pattern bandwidth and the suppression of undesired spectral harmonics will also be investigated. Mutual coupling effects will not be introduced until later chapters, however. 1 INTRODUCTION The circular array antenna can be seen as an elementary building block of conformal array antennas with rotational symmetry, just as the linear array is a building block of planar array antennas.

3 Directional Elements When the radiating elements are directive, the array performance in terms of bandwidth and pattern stability is usually improved compared to arrays with isotropic elements [Rahim and Davies 1982]. Also, with directive elements the phase mode concept helps in understanding the mechanisms. The general expression for the radiation from a circular array [Eq. 13. 65. (a) Computed from a summation over all elements; (b) directly from a summation of three phase modes (cf. 7). 30), which is a convolution between excitation and radiation.

In the figure, the locations of the first nulls of the Bessel function J0 are indicated with dash-dotted lines. The highest ripple typically occurs along these lines, as expected. It has been observed [Chu 1959, Knudsen 1956] that odd numbers of elements sometimes produce less ripple than even numbers. 8, verifies that this often is the case. In order to minimize the ripple, the harmonics of the fundamental mode must not be allowed to radiate. 10 gave an indication of which modes are important—mode numbers up to kR + 5 will radiate.

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