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Therefore, the phenomena of wave refraction, reflection, and conversion lead to the presence of many acoustic waves in the borehole when a sonic log is being run. It is not surprising, in view of these considerations, that many acoustic energy arrivals are seen by the receivers of a sonic logging tool. The more usual FORMATION EVALUATION IN CASED HOLES energy arrivals in well-bondedcasingare shownin the acoustic waveform displays of Fig. 3- 10. These waveforms were recorded with an array of eight receivers located 8 to 11% fi from the transmitter.
3-18-Decay 1 I 1 1000 2000 Time (us) after Neutron Burst of capture gamma ray counting rate The TDT-K Tool The TDT-K tool provides values of thermal decay time and a ratio curve derived from the count rates of the two detectors. After the end of a tau-wide neutron burst the tool has a hardware delay of twice tau-formation to allow the borehole signal to decay, and an updated value of tau is determined using the mainly borehole free count rates after delay. In Fig. 3-18, the “straight-line” part of the curve correspondsprimarily to exponential decay of the neutron density.
The new transform eliminates the needfor the correction factor and yields porosity directly. This empirical transform can be approximated over the range of normally encounteredporosities by the following equation: (Eq. 7 depending upon the investigator. 7 for C. 67 is more appropriate. 6. It shouldbe usedwhen the rock investigatedby the sonic tool contains an appreciable amount of hydrocarbon in the gassy (vapor) phase. Becauseof the very shallow depth of investigation, this condition normally exists only in higher porosity sandstones(greater than 30%).