By Dave Goulson
Bumblebees are popular and charismatic bugs, happening all through a lot of the area. they're more and more getting used as a version organism for learning quite a lot of ecological and behavioural suggestions, equivalent to social association, optimum foraging theories, host-parasite interactions, and pollination. lately they've got develop into a spotlight for conservationists because of mounting proof of diversity contractions and catastrophic extinctions with a few species disappearing from whole continents (e.g. in North America). simply by means of enhancing our figuring out in their ecology will we devise good plans to preserve them. The function of bumblebees as invasive species (e.g. Bombus terrestris in Japan) has additionally turn into topical with the becoming alternate in advertisement bumblebee nests for tomato pollination resulting in institution of non-native bumblebees in a few countries.
Since the booklet of the 1st variation of the e-book, there were countless numbers of analysis papers released on bumblebees. there's sincerely a continuous want for a cheap, well-illustrated, and attractive textual content that makes obtainable the entire significant advances in figuring out of the behaviour and ecology of bumblebees which have been made within the final 30 years.
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Additional info for Bumblebees: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation (Oxford Biology)
However, there have been no studies of the distance or duration of foraging trips in relation to size variation within species and, in general, very little is known of the foraging range of bumblebees (see Chapter 6). Similarly, we do not know how ﬂight speed relates to size; if larger bees ﬂy faster then this clearly would provide some advantage in foraging. The relative ﬂight speeds of foragers in relation to their size have never to my knowledge been examined. Cresswell et al. (2000) calculated the upper limit of the foraging range of bumblebees to be about 10 km, this being the maximum distance from which a bee foraging for nectar could return with a net proﬁt.
This is also the case in honeybees and many other bee species that have been examined (Mackensen 1951; Woyke 1963, 1979; de Camargo 1979; Kukuk and May 1990). In fact, use of a single sex-determining locus seems to be the norm in most Hymenoptera (Cook and Crozier 1995). The fewer loci involved, the more likely it is that diploid males will occur. Diploid males appear to have very low fertility in bumblebees (Duchateau and Mariën 1995). In honeybees, diploid male larvae are consumed by workers, but in bumblebees they are reared to adulthood (Plowright and Pallet 1979; Duchateau et al.
The more workers that are available, the more stable the nest temperature (Seeley and Heinrich 1981). In established nests, the temperature is remarkably stable at around 30 ± 1°C. Active incubation may become unnecessary as a colony grows, since the activity of many bees can produce sufﬁcient heat to warm the nest. Indeed, large colonies may overheat, at which point some workers switch to fanning the brood with their wings (Vogt 1986). At these times, part of the wax cap may also be removed from the nest.