By FREDERICK HARTT
The main entire and best-illustrated advent to Western paintings, the 2 volumes of artwork: A background of portray, Sculpture, And structure. Its writer, Professor Frederick Hartt, is a really proficient instructor. He conjures up where and time within which each one nice civilization flourished, and exhibits how person artworks exhibit it. quantity I starts with the previous Stone Age and follows mankinds creative improvement throughout the finish of the center a while. Its 3 significant parts—Art earlier than Writing, the traditional international, and the center Ages—examine the portray, sculpture, and structure of greater than twenty civilizations. the humanities of old Egypt, Greece, Rome, and the Islamic international are studied intimately, as are these of the Early Christian and Early Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic eras.
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Historic views includes a large arc of house and time—Western Asia to North Africa and Europe from the 3rd millennium BCE to the 5th century CE—to discover mapmaking and worldviews within the old civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In every one society, maps served as serious financial, political, and private instruments, yet there has been little consistency in how and why they have been made.
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35) from Bakota tribe of Gabon in West Africa, which were figures of the forms, crouching birds, and an animal head. ple ward off evil spirits. The clear-cut, tense geometric forms and strong magical content of these figures aided greatly in the development of abstract art in Europe (see Vol. 2, Simo 480, 489). were often stance, far Yoruba ceremonial masks from Nigeria more complex. The one in fig. 36, for in- culminates in a veritable explosion of cactus should imagine the effect of such masks moving in complex and sometimes bloody religious rituals, with a grass fringe concealing the wearer.
Tlingit bear screen. 1840. mankind down birds with wings spread, reminding us forcibly of the wall From Such objecls as the stone pipe in the form of a hawk (fig. C. d. 300, show a high degree of formal mastery and technical finish, suggesting the art of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. The Indians of the Southwest built superb walled towns works of art made by preliterate societies close to our own time, and throughout the widest variety of climatic environments and cultural systems, it is clear that in art created before writing fantasy and magic generally operate outside the control of reason.
36". Museum. ) The ro)al heads, such as the one Olokun (fig. 30), are of striking nobility and beauty. The broad, smooth surbelieved to represent the early queen of the faces are skin striated with parallel grooves representing ritual scars and are perforated around the mouth with holes jewels. possibi) intended for the insertion of ProbabI). these heads were made to surmount wooden bodies Sixteenth-century Portuguese explorers were the first kingdom of Benin. Its art, however, was not widely known until the city of Benin vsas destroyed in 1897 and a large number Europeans to visit the nearby Nigerian of splendid bronze objects from the palace were taken to England.