AQA History AS Unit 2 A New Roman Empire? Mussolini's Italy, by Chris Rowe

By Chris Rowe

Written to hide the AQA background a degree Unit 2 specification (HIS2K), our pupil booklet presents a targeted examine key occasions in Italy from 1922 to 1945 and permits scholars to realize a better knowing of the interval and assessment the main concerns.

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This process was helped along by a sudden rush of attempts to assassinate Mussolini. Between November 1 92 5 and October 1 926, there were four such attempts ( it has been estimated that the overall total during his rule was 1 3 ) and they were ideally ti1ned to j ustify the introduction of new repressive police powers . Exploring the d etai l Attempts t o assassinate Mussolini 1925 November: 1 926 April: 1 926 September: 1 926 October: Tito Zaniboni Violet G i bson Gino Lucetti Anteo Zam boni The first assassination attempt, by the socialist deputy Zaniboni, helped Mussolini pass the Law on the Powers of the head of government at the end of 1 92 5 .

After the three attempts in 1 926, a new police law introduced powers to imprison people without trial for ' special crimes' . In December 1 926, the Law for the Defence of the State provided for the death penalty for attempts on the lives of members of the government or the royal family. The law also set up a new special tribunal for political trials . • • Section 1 Establishing the fasdst regjme, 1 922,29 In 1 927, the secret police was formally established - the OVRA ( Organisation for Vigilance and Repression against Anti-Fascism) .

Divorce was outlawed. Increased State financial support was given to priests and religious orders. Azione Cattolica was recognised as a legal organisation the only non-fascist organisation in Italy to be given such status. It is easy to see why many Catholics rejoiced at the Lateran agreements . Mussolini had made significant concessions in order to secure the Lateran Pacts, but he also gained great rewards. The great majority of Italians were Catholics and now it was possible for them to support the regime with the favour of the Church.

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