By Elmer H. Marth, James Steele
This completely revised and up to date reference offers finished insurance of the newest advancements and clinical advances in dairy microbiology—emphasizing probiotics, fermented dairy items, disorder prevention, and public healthiness and regulatory keep an eye on criteria for dairy meals.
Containing greater than 2350 bibliographic citations, tables, drawings and photographs—550 greater than the former edition—Applied Dairy Microbiology, moment version is a useful reference for all nutrients and dairy microbiologists, scientists, and technologists; toxicologists; nutrients processors; sanitarians; dietitians; epidemiologists; bacteriologists; public overall healthiness and regulatory group of workers; and veterinarians; and an enormous textual content for upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and continuing-education scholars in those disciplines.
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Mackie and Heath, 1979). Formate is produced in abundance in the rumen both from carbohydrate fermentation and from reduction of carbon dioxide. , 1970). 4. H2 Consumption and Interspecies Hydrogen Transfer Anaerobic metabolism requires that electrons (reducing equivalents) generated from biological oxidations be transferred to terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen. Most anaerobes that ferment carbohydrates dispose of these electrons by transfer to one or more organic intermediate compounds in the catabolic pathway such as pyruvate (producing lactate), acetyl coenzyme A and acetaldehyde (producing ethanol), and carbon dioxide (producing formate) (see Fig.
Most of these bacteria require additional growth factors such as amino acids, peptides, and vitamins. Succinate is decarboxylated to propionate (see Fig. 5) by several ruminal species, including the metabolically versatile Selenomonas ruminantium and the metabolically specialized Succiniclasticum ruminis (van Gylswyk, 1995). Lactate is converted to propionate by several bacterial 26 Weimer species, particularly S. ruminantium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Veillonella parvula, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and some Propionibacterium spp.
Arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose). Pectins are more abundant in leaf tissue than in stems, and Microbiology of the Dairy Animal 23 Figure 8 Relative populations of the cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes and their sums in the rumens of four cows fed the same four diets. Diets were based on alfalfa silage (AS) or corn silage (CS) at two different levels of fiber (24 or 32% neutral detergent fiber, analyzed after α-amylase treatment).