By B.A. Gregory
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Extra info for An Introduction to Electrical Instrumentation and Measurement Systems: A guide to the use, selection, and limitations of electrical instruments and measurement systems
005 per cent is being used to measure the voltage from a source that has an output resistance of 10 kn. 5 except in the case of an ammeter, the meter resistance will need to be 1In of the circuit resistance. 5. 0001 Summation of Errors To establish the limit of uncertainty for a particular instrument all the above factors must be taken into account and a summation of the errors made. d. 5 per cent of full scale. 005 A. 19. Measurement of resistance using an ammeter and a voltmeter Thus it should be apparent that the more instruments involved in the performance of a measurement the greater the uncertainty that is likely to be in the value of the measured quantity and the totalising of construction/calibration errors is of considerable importance since, in most cases, these will account for the major part of the total error in a measurement.
It must be realised that it is impossible to determine exactly the true value of any quantity: the value assigned to a quantity will always have a tolerance or uncertainty associated with it. In some instances this tolerance is very small, say 1 part in 10 9 , and the true value is approached but it can never be determined exactly. Nominal value The nominal value, usually of a component, is the one given it by a manufacturer, for example, a 10 kil resistor. 1 kil. Measured value This is the value indicated by an instrument or determined by a measurement process.
S. 27. S. 34) and since the current value is squared, p will be positive whether i is negative or positive. s. value. s. value, and conventionally denoted by the capital letter , for example,! or V. s. 2 +''2 2+' 2+ 14. s. s. s. 414 respectively. Phase relationships When alternating signals are present in a circuit containing a combination of resistive and reactive (inductive or capacitive) components, a time displacement will exist between the signals at various points in the circuit. If the signals are all of one frequency this time displacement is referred to as a phase angle, but this latter term cannot be used if more than a single frequency is present.