By Touraj Daryaee
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Historical views includes a enormous arc of area and time—Western Asia to North Africa and Europe from the 3rd millennium BCE to the 5th century CE—to discover mapmaking and worldviews within the old civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In every one society, maps served as serious monetary, political, and private instruments, yet there has been little consistency in how and why they have been made.
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59)The city of Amol was built by the heretic who is fbll of death. Zoroaster, the SOil of Spitaman was from that city. 60)The city of Baghdad was built by Abu Ja'far whom they call Abu DawanTq. Sealed with victory. Finished with prosperity, happiness and peace. 4 Commentary -pad nam i dadar: "in the name of the Creator" This is one of the two common formulas for the beginning of the Zoro astrian Middle Persian texts which usually accompanies Ohnnazd; see 1964; 1); Ayadgar I Zareran (Nyberg 1964; 18); and the Indian Bundahisn (BehzadT 1368;1).
E, brilliant or beautifbl Balx (F�a 'II Balx 1970; 28), while MoqaddasT states that in the ancient books, Balx was called brilliant (MoqadasT 1361; 439). In Persian literature in general, Balx has the epitheth of bamz "bril liant," (Farhang Anandraj 1335). This may be an error by the scribe in our text, where he mistakenly wrote the initial letter bet as nUn (Zarshenas 1376; 7). -Nawazag: "Nawazag" TIlls is a town in Balx which appears to have been the border between Iran and TUran. The next section (9) demonstrates why Spandyad's lance made the mark for the boundary.
53)The city of Gay was built by the accursed Alexander, the son of Philip. The dwelling of the Jews was there. During the reign ofYazdgird, the son of Sabuhr, (the Jews) were led there by the request of SiSTnduxt who was his wife. 54)The city of Eran-asan-kard-Kawad, was built by (*Kawad), the son of Peroz. 55)The city of Askar was built byWahram, the son ofYazdgird. 56)The city of Adlirbadagan was (built) by Eran-Gusasp who was the general of Adlirbadagan. English Translation 21 57) The city ofWan was built byWan, the daughter ofGulaxsan and became married toKayKawad, and the fortification of Atwandasp was built byTur, the son Bratres theKarp by sor cery as a place of protection for his own life.