By Steven Runciman
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Except for the fact that Drake had sailed farther north along the Pacific coast of North America than any previous European, his voyage added no significant discoveries. Drake brought much treasure back to England; his expedition did arouse interest in the unknown and fostered the growing nationalism in England. Two centuries later England was to use his landing at New Albion as a nebulous claim for territory on the Pacific coast. When Drake did not return to Mexico, there was some fear in that country that he had found a northern passage which would permit the entry of more English raiders and Vizcaino's expedition may have been an attempt to forestall further intruders.
Almost twenty years later Jean Frangois de Galaup, comte de la Perouse, spent four years in the Pacific. Rounding Cape Horn, he visited Chile and Hawaii en route to Lituya Bay in Alaska. Returning southward he reached San Francisco without stopping. At Monterey he received a warm welcome and alerted the Spanish to the threat of Russian expansion in the north. He returned to Hawaii and visited Macao, the Philippines, western Japan, southern Sakhalin, and Petropavlosk. La Perouse returned to Botany Bay in Australia, but after leaving this port his ships and all hands disappeared.
Captain George Vancouver, 1791) RUSSIA REACHES NORTH AMERICA During the thirteenth century the Mongol empire extended across Russia to the borders of eastern Europe. Not until the reign of Ivan HI, the Great (1462-1505), was the Grand Duchy of Moscow freed from Tatar rule. As the vast Mongol complex disintegrated, the Russian empire filled the resulting vacancy by expanding in all directions. During the reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725) Russia reached the Baltic Sea and became westernized. Meanwhile adventurers were advancing across the Urals and Siberia to the Pacific.