A Diplomatic History of the Caspian Sea: Treaties, Diaries, by G. Mirfendereski

By G. Mirfendereski

In a chain of brief tales that either tell and amuse, this ebook transports the reader around the windswept seashores of the Caspian Sea and offers a provocative view of the wars, peace, intrigues, and betrayals that experience formed the political geography of this significant and unstable quarter. The loss of life of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the eclipsing of the outdated Iranian-Soviet regime of the ocean have given upward thrust to new demanding situations for the neighborhood actors and unparalleled possibilities for foreign gamers to faucet into the area's huge, immense oil and fuel assets, 3rd in measurement purely in the back of Siberia and the Persian Gulf. This booklet explores the ancient subject matters that tell and animate the extra instant and everyday discussions approximately petroleum, pipelines, and ethnic clash within the Caspian area.

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His successor, Shah Safi (1629–1642) then built a town south of Ashraf on top of a hill overlooking a wide stretch of the country,25 which is the present-day Safiabad. Nader’s inattention to the urban delights of Mazandaran may have been owed in part to his dislike of the Qajar who roamed it. Mongol in distant origin, the Turkmen Qajar migrated from Persia to Syria in 1335–1336 and returned at the turn of the fifteenth century, settling at Ganja and Yerevan. During the reign of the Safavid king Shah Suleiman (1666–1694), one Shahqoli Khan Qajar Qoyunlu left Ganja for Astarabad, where he settled and married the daughter of a local nobleman.

Among the foreign trading houses active in Gilan at the time were Riley and Company, which dealt in silk; the House of Diner, belonging to a Swiss entrepreneur; and the Kavkaz and Mercury Steam Navigation Company. In the evening of October 7, 1860, the Lankoran weighed anchor from Anzali and set a course in the direction of the Bay of Astarabad, some 32 to 40 forty hours’ voyage by a steamer sailing under favorable conditions. The breeze that had tossed the ship at Anzali continued into the next day and pretty much dropped most of the Persian passengers to their knees.

Powered by strong oarsmen,” the boat glided northbound on the Piri River. It kept grazing thick brush and leaning trees as it moved along for two hours before reaching the 42 A Diplomatic History of the Caspian Sea frozen waters at the entrance of the Ghazian lagoon. A small Russian steamboat picked up the royal party and transported it to a larger vessel on board of which the shah was greeted by Qoli Bekin, the Russian governor of Baku, and other Russian dignitaries. The ship then sailed calmly along the Ghazian shoreline, passing Siasour and Miyanmahaleh on the portside, where a great number and variety of birds and waterfowl were observed.

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