A Brief History of Disease, Science and Medicine by Michael Kennedy

By Michael Kennedy

This creation to the heritage of drugs starts off with the evolution of infectious ailments on the finish of the final ice age. It describes the beginning of technology and medication in historic civilizations, together with China and India. the 1st 3rd of the e-book covers the early interval that's thought of the "classical" heritage of medication. the rest describes the evolution of recent medication and surgical procedure as much as the current. the ultimate bankruptcy is a historical past of clinical economics and explains the starting place of medical health insurance, HMOs and clinical malpractice court cases, matters defined nowhere else within the scientific university curriculum.

There is a forty web page index and over 550 footnotes, so much of them references to the unique articles defined within the textual content. A bibliography of crucial assets is usually incorporated.

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Other variables will have several limited possibilities, such as college major. When the possible values are limited, the variables are called discrete. Variables such as annual income or serum cholesterol level, however, can have a wide variety of responses within a numeric range. These are referred to as continuous variables since there is an extensive range of possible values on a continuous scale. SCALES OF MEASUREMENT The different types of variables have led to another classification of variables based on the scale of measurement used to determine their value.

Multiple prospective CHAPTER 5 Invariably Variables 47 studies with concurring results need to be done before the scientific community will accept a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. One of the stronger arguments that support a cause-and-effect relationship is if the effect disappears when the explanatory variable is removed. KEY POINTS ■ A variable is any measurable characteristic found in each individual in a population. ■ Categorical variables are assigned numbers that represent categories.

Et al. 2000. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. JAMA, 283:7, 897. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. __________ are collections of people or things with common quantifiable characteristics. 2. __________ and __________ criteria define a population. 3. __________ characteristics could potentially influence the result of a study if not equally distributed among the groups. 4. Populations are a theoretical concept, but their __________ are very real and measurable. 5. If a patient who is a member of a population that was studied wants to substitute a cheaper drug for the one that was shown to have benefit, s/he should be told __________.

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